A British soldier, especially one serving during the American Revolution. In his book British Military Uniforms (Hamylyn Publishing Group 1968), the military historian W.Y. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? The epithet "redcoats" is familiar throughout much of the former British Empire, even though this colour was by no means exclusive to the British Army. The Royal Marine Artillery wore dark blue from their creation in 1804. The cloth for private soldiers used up until the late 18th century was plain weave broadcloth weighing 16 ounces per square yard (540 g/m2), made from coarser blends of English wool. Red coat (also spelled as "redcoat") or scarlet tunic is a military garment used widely, though not exclusively worn, by most regiments of the British Army, Royal Marines, and some colonial units within the British Empire, from the 17th to the 20th centuries. The noncommissioned officer's red coat issued under the warrant of 1768, was dyed with a mixture of madder-red and cochineal to produce a "lesser scarlet"; brighter than the red worn by other ranks but cheaper than the pure cochineal dyed garment purchased by officers as a personal order from military tailors.  However the extensive use of this colour by British, Indian and other Imperial soldiers over a period of nearly three hundred years made red uniform a veritable icon of the British Empire. , O'Sullivan alludes to two other encounters in which the Irish won the day against English 'red coats'. The Bolivian Colorados Regiment wear red tunics on ceremonial occasions - colorado means red in Spanish. The Brigade of Guards resumed wearing their scarlet full dress in 1920 but for the remainder of the army red coats were only authorised for wear by regimental bands and officers in mess dress or on certain limited social or ceremonial occasions (notably attendance at court functions or weddings). Furthermore, the vegetable dyes used until the 19th century would fade over time to a pink or ruddy-brown, so on a long campaign in a hot climate the colour was less conspicuous than the modern scarlet shade would be. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The term redcoat may have originated in 16th century Tudor Ireland as a derogatory term for the British, as British soldiers in Lord Lieutenant of Ireland's army wore red coats, the first time British soldiers collectively had a red uniform, the term was then brought to America and Europe by Irish emigrants. “Redcoat.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/redcoat.  In an earlier letter dated 13 October 1775, Washington used a variation of the expression, stating, "whenever the Redcoat gentry pleases to step out of their Intrenchments. Some regiments turn out small detachments, such as colour guards, in scarlet full dress at their own expense. Scarlet tunics ceased to be general issue upon British mobilisation in August 1914.  The scarlet tunic continues to be used into the 21st century, with several armed forces of the Commonwealth of Nations adopting them as their full dress and mess dress uniforms. Redshirts (Italian Camicie rosse) or Red coats (Italian Giubbe Rosse) is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi.  As formal battles of the time commonly involved deployment in columns and lines, the individual soldier was not likely to be a target by himself. In present-day Venezuela the red coat is part of the parade uniforms of the Regimiento de Guardia de Honor (Regiment of Presidential Guards); the Compañia de Honor "24 de Junio" (Company of Honor "24 de Junio") and the new National Militia Bolivariana. ", Other pejorative nicknames for British soldiers included "bloody backs" (in a reference to both the colour of their coats and the use of flogging as a means of punishment for military offences) and "lobsters" (most notably in Boston around the time of the Boston Massacre, The earliest reference to the association with the lobster appears in 1740, just before the French and Indian War). The result was a slightly lighter cloth than that used for privates, still essentially a broadcloth and maintaining the characteristics of that cloth, but slightly lighter and with a much finer quality finish. page 868, Concise Oxford Dictionary 1982. From an early stage red coats were lined with contrasting colours and turned out to provide distinctive regimental facings (lapels, cuffs and collars). The alum, argol and tin liquor, which acted as mordants or dye fixatives were boiled together for half an hour, the madder and cochineal was added for another ten minutes. See p. 5 of Byrne's translation. As late as 1980, consideration was given to the reintroduction of scarlet as a replacement for the dark blue "No. The scarlet tunic is presently used as part of the full dress uniforms for the Life Guards and several other cavalry units, the Foot Guards, the Royal Engineers, line infantry regiments, generals, and most army staff officers of the British Army. (esp. The weights often quoted in contemporary documents are given per running yard, though; so for a cloth of 54 inches (140 cm) width a yard weighed 24 ounces (680 g).
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