1998.  Per one study, the average total length of females was 81.4 cm (2 ft 8 in), while that of males was 69.6 cm (2 ft 3 1⁄2 in). Amphibian and reptile colonization of reclaimed coal spoil grasslands. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92. The author would like to thank: Deb Jacobs for taking the time to meet and discuss information regarding data from her study sites in Canada as well as reviewing the report; Richard King for the information he supplied in addition to providing contact information for the relevant authorities; Ron Brooks for providing additional information and reviewing the report; Barb Ball for providing the detailed map of the islands of western Lake Erie. November 2004), suggesting that Lake Erie Watersnakes use a full range of island habitat and that all areas are potential snake habitat (King 1998, 2003). comm. McAllister, Chris T. 2015. Journal of Heredity 92 (2): 173-179, Gordon, Robert E. 1952. Loss and degradation of suitable and critical shoreline habitat due to development have detrimental effects on watersnakes, although there is evidence that watersnakes have adapted well to some anthropogenic structures (King 2001; USFWS 2003). How do changes to ferry services affect traffic levels and what is expected over the next 10 years? The area of occupancy accounts for all shoreline habitat and possible hibernacula on the four islands in Canada (East Sister, Hen, Middle, and Pelee) where Lake Erie Watersnakes are known to be extant. The program encourages a "live and let live" attitude for snakes living among island residents and visitors. 2004. Decline and Recovery of the Lake Erie Watersnake: A Story of Success in Conservation. Campbell, C.A. Pelee Island is considered a single location where the most plausible threat is road traffic. In 2001, snake researchers found a juvenile Lake Erie Watersnake that appeared to have been killed (but not eaten) by an unknown species of bird (D. Jacobs, unpubl. Botanical and Herpetological Specialist, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat. Australasian J. Herpetol. vii + 23 pp. Herpetologica 19:179-184. (1997), Number of known or inferred current locations, Current locations restricted to four islands in western Lake Erie. comm. Endangered Species Act protections for the snake included designation of 120 ha (300 acres) of inland habitat and 18 km (11 mi) of shoreline for breeding grounds. Inbreeding depression in an isolated population of adders Vipera berus. For each of the different quality ranks assigned, the selection of the density estimate (0–141 adults/km) was intended to generate conservative abundance estimates for Pelee Island. & Weatherhead, P.J. Lake Erie Watersnakes require specific habitat during the active season to forage, bask, court, mate, and give birth to young; they also require suitable habitat for hibernation. Gene flow is created by movement among and between islands and the mainland (King and Lawson 1997). Univ. Sauria 17 (2): 15-23 -, Sutton, William B., Than J. Boves and N. Emily Boves. Snakes of Virgina. Notes on Reptiles and Amphibians From Clifty Falls State Park, Jefferson County, Indiana. 1991. On June 5, 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. Alpha-numeric code: B 1 ab(iii,iii,v) + 2 ab(ii,iii,v). Breviora 400: 3, Cope, E.D. Logs and anthropogenic debris (e.g. Recently, Lake Erie Watersnakes have been observed on Ballast, Gibraltar, Gull, Green, Kelleys, Middle Bass, North Bass, Rattlesnake, South Bass, Starve, and Sugar Islands in the U.S. (USFWS 2003). Geographic Distribution. Nerodia sipedon. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content.